19 May 2007 04:13

SOMALIA WATCH

 
Country
  • Title: [SW Country](FSAU) Food Security Highlights Gedo, Hiran, Juba Valley, Lower Shabelle, Middle Shabelle, Bakol, Bay and Cowpea Belt Region -March 2000
  • From:[]
  • Date :[11 April 2000]

Food Security Highlights

Gedo Region

March 2000

 

General Situation

No rainfall was received in the Gedo region, which is fairly normal for the jilaal season. Water availability normally exists along the Juba River at this time of year and is scarce in the remote areas far from the river. The rainfed farmers have begun land preparation activities for the coming gu season, although seed availability is limited with relatively high prices in the whole region. The food security situation of the poor rainfed farmers and IDPs of Garbahare, Burdhubo and Bardera districts is below normal, as previous harvests were poor and no food aid has been delivered since July 1999.

People have resorted to self-employment activities, which have not been as effective as required. The Dawa River is still empty, while the Juba River’s level remains extremely low.

Rainfall

No rains were received in the region during this month. The general weather condition was cloudy, hot and windy. The clouds were seen in the last weeks of the month, which implied the early arrival of gu rains, were misleading.

Water Availability

Water is available along the Juba River and nearby areas, whereas water is scarce in the remote areas and is salty and dense. If the expected gu rains are not received on time, there will be concern over a possible water crisis.

Pasture Condition

Pasture condition is generally poor in the whole region and the availability of fodder remained limited. In Dirhara areas, in between Garbahare and El Waq districts, fodder is still available even though there has been a large influx of livestock from other districts and regions.

Livestock Condition

Livestock condition was poor/weak, particularly that of cattle in both Bardera and Luuq areas, where animals are fed crop stocks, and that of goats in Garbahare and Belet Hawa areas, due to poor grazing conditions. Livestock milk yield decreased and, consequently, milk prices increased in many parts of the region. No outbreak of diseases reported and no veterinary services exist.

Crops

Rainfed farmers started preparing their fields for the coming gu season. The availability of seeds is extremely low, due to higher seed prices. Irrigated farmers along the Juba River are currently busy preparing and sowing maize fields before the onset of the rains, while farmers along the Dawa River are still waiting for the river’s level to rise.

Employment Opportunities and Coping Mechanisms

People are resorting to distress coping mechanisms, especially the poor agro-pastoral groups and IDPs, who are mainly involved in self-employment activities, which have not been as effective as required in terms of income earnings.

Markets

Cereal supplies decreased during this month, as the local consumers rapidly consumed maize harvests and the prices are still slightly above normal. Imported commodities hardly enter the region, but prices are currently normal.

Health and Nutrition

Malnutrition was reported in the IDP camps and in remote rainfed villages in Bardera and Burdhubo districts. Poor urban groups’ nutritional status, in both Garbahare and Burdhubo towns, is under question. Cases of child measles were reported in Luuq, Burdhubo and Bardera towns/IDPs camps, but no deaths have been reported so far.

Health services are still lacking in the southern districts, as no organization is currently running any health services for the concerned districts.

Security

The security situation in the region is good and calm. There is a peace meeting in Belet Hawa town organized by the elders of rival groups and details will soon be available.


Food Security Highlights

Hiran Region

March 2000

General Situation

There was no rainfall received during the month, which is normal. Water availability is normal at water points. However, chronic water shortages were reported in villages bordered Ethiopia and the Galgadud region. Pasture and grazing conditions are well below normal in both pastoral and agro-pastoral areas. Livestock condition, in terms of the production of milk and meat, is poor due to the jilaal period. A small group of farmers have started tilling the land, but most of the farmers are reluctant to engage in land preparation. Few irrigated households have sufficient cereal stocks, while others do not and depend on purchases from the market. Employment opportunities are improving, as compared to last month.

Rainfall

Rainfall was not received during the month, which is normal in the jilaal period. High temperatures and low humidity were observed. Cumulous dark clouds and intensified winds, which are early signs of rainfall, were seen in the last dekad of the month.

Water Availability

Water availability and prices are generally normal. However, the availability of water has been significantly reduced in remote areas, where livestock density is high and the capacity of the wells is limited or the wells do not even function in some areas. In villages bordering Galgadud, there are reports of severe water shortage and the price of water is high and unaffordable.

Pasture and Grazing

Pasture and grazing conditions are below normal. Usually browsers (goats and camels) have a higher resilience to hardship than cattle. Non lactating cattle have been moved toward Jowhar to obtain pasture, while cows, calves and weak animals are left behind and fed fodder (sorghum and maize). If the rainfall is delayed, the condition of cattle will be under question.

Livestock condition

Livestock conditions are slightly below normal, but not as poor as predicted earlier. Herders are struggling to look after their animals to bridge the difficult jilaal period. Animals are fairly healthy, with no outbreak of livestock diseases reported.

Crops

Seasonal crops have not been planted yet, and the fields have not been cultivated. Few active farmers have begun to till the land, but most of the farmers are reluctant to begin land preparation, because of low cereal prices. The availability and accessibility of seeds for farmers is good.

Employment and Coping Mechanism

Limited agricultural employment, as a coping mechanism, exists for poor wealth groups, such as land preparation, unskilled labor (e.g., portering), construction and the sale of livestock. More people have involuntarily resorted to self-employment, like the collection of bush products, but it has not been an effective income generating activity.

Market Prices and Terms of Trade

Cereal prices have been low since last month, because of the irrigated deyr harvest, the continuos supply of maize from Jowhar, and Food for Work programs from CARE – which have all flooded the market and caused a price decrease. The prices of imported commodities are going up and down in relation to the exchange rate with the US dollar. Currently, the prices are at an average level. The terms of trade are also normal. Cowpea and sesame are selling at the same price of Ssh3,500/Kg - lower by 30-40% from the price of 2-3 months ago.

Food Security and Cereal Stock

Rainfed farmers do not have cereal stock at all, as result of rainfed crop failure. 50% of irrigated farmers have sufficient cereal stock to last up to the forthcoming harvest. In contrast, the other 50% of irrigated farmers do not have any remaining stocks, because they have depleted their production for household consumption and for the repayment of debt.

Health and Nutrition

The health and nutrition situation of the region is generally normal. No outbreak of human diseases or acute malnutrition reported during the month. Some villages, which border Tieglo in the Bakool region, may have some cases of moderate malnutrition of children and the elderly. The situation is more severe in remote areas.

Security Situation

The security situation has improved throughout the region during the month. The existing problem is from clashes between two sub-clans in northeastern villages called Kabhanley. The latest information reported was that a number of people were injured and others killed. The main cause of the tension was a dispute on land use for agricultural purposes.


Food Security Highlights

Juba Valley Regions (Lower and Middle Juba)

March 2000

 

 General Situation

No rains were received in this area, which is normal for this time of year. Water, pasture and grazing conditions are poor. Livestock body weight and milk production is decreasing. Overall, livestock condition is normal, with the exception of a few camels dying suddenly from an unknown disease. Poor wealth groups have no cereal stocks. Generally, the prices of locally produced cereal are from average to above average levels.

Rainfall

No rains were received in the region, which is normal. The weather is hot and windy.

Pasture and Water

The availability of water and pasture is ranging from average to below average and are accessible. In many places, the river and water catchments are drying up.

Livestock

Overall, livestock condition is normal. Milk production is seasonally low and bodyweight is decreasing. Migration to water points is high. Few camels are dying suddenly, due to an unknown disease.

Crops

Crop cultivation normally does not occur during this month. Few sesame crops are seen growing in some desheks.

Household cereal stocks

Household cereal stocks are normal for middle and better-off agro-pastoral food economy groups. The majority of the riverine food economy groups have stocks from sesame production during the deyr season. They have cash for cereal food purchase. The poor wealth groups for both of these food economy groups have no cereal stocks. The nomadic pastoral food economy groups have good terms of trade for their livestock. One export quality goat can be exchanged for two bags (50kg) of sorghum in Sakow and Bu’aale and one and a half bags of maize in Hagar.

CARE, through World Vision, distributed a large amount of Food for Work in the Salagle area (western Sakow) during February/March.

The price for locally produced crops in Sakow is at an average level, in Bu’aale it is from average to above average and in Hagar it is above average. The price of imported food commodities is at an average level.

IDPs

No major displacement and migration is taking place in the area. However, in Bu’aale and Hagar there are former IDPs from Bay (because of crop failure) and Kismaio (because of conflict). In addition, due to the recent conflict in Dobley, there are IDPs in Hagar and Bu’aale from Dobley and Afmadow areas.

Health and Nutrition

The health and nutrition status is normal.

Security

The security condition is normal.


Food Security Highlights

Lower Shabelle Region

March 2000

General Situation

Water and pasture availability is scarce throughout the region, which is seasonal. Pasture and grazing condition are better in the irrigated areas of the region, where most of the animals are concentrated during the jilaal season. Camel and goats are browsing shrubs and trees in the drier area of the region. The livestock condition seems better compared to the normal jilaal season. In general, animals that have migrated from the drier areas are in a worse body condition as compared to the local animals.

Maize and sorghum have already been harvested, while the harvest of sesame is in progress. Land preparation started for the coming gu season. Local staple foods (maize and sorghum) are available at all local markets of the region and their price is affordable.

Conflict between opposing factions in Kurtun Warrey area has forced many people to become displaced to neighboring villages or districts. Security of the region has deteriorated sharply. There was frequent fighting between opposing factions in Kurtun Warrey and Qoryoley area.

Rainfall

There was no rain in March. High temperatures and humidity are the prevailing weather conditions in the region.

Water Availability

Water is scarce in the drier areas of the region. The Shabelle River and wells are the main sources of water.

Pasture and Grazing Condition

In general, the availability of pasture is low throughout the region. Pasture and grazing conditions are better in the irrigated and coastal areas, where most of the animals are concentrated during the jilaal period. Animal herders have to pay a price in order to graze their animals in irrigated fields. Camels and goats are browsing shrubs and trees in the drier areas.

Livestock Condition

In this jilaal season, livestock condition seems better, as compared to a normal jilaal season, due to good late deyr rains. Animals are concentrated around water points, especially cattle. There is fear of an outbreak of a disease, due to the large concentration of animals in the region. Already, a camel disease is being reported in the Qoryoley area. In general, animals have migrated from the drier areas and are in worse body condition, as compared to the local animals.

Crop Condition

Maize and sorghum have already been harvested throughout the region. The harvesting of sesame is under way. Some farmers have lost their harvested sesame, because of insecurity in the area. Farmers have begun land preparation for the gu season.

Household Cereal Stocks

Overall, household cereal stocks are considered adequate, although in some areas farmers did experience a poor harvest.

Coping Mechanisms

Job opportunities in agriculture and at banana plantations are scarce. Most poor wealth groups resort to self-employment activities, such as the collection of bush products, firewood, making of charcoal, cutting grass, fishing, hunting wild animals, and petty trade. The effectiveness of these activities is very limited.

Displacement/Migration

Conflict between opposing factions in the Kurtun Warrey area has forced many people to become displaced to neighboring villages.

Market Prices

Local staple foods (maize and sorghum) are available in all local markets of the region. These commodities are affordable; sorghum is at Ssh1,000/Kg and the price of maize ranges between Ssh1,100 to Ssh1,300/Kg. The supply of both crops and market activity are normal.

Health and Nutrition

Overall, health and nutrition conditions are reported to be normal, although an outbreak of cholera is reported in the Marka area.

Security Situation

The security situation of the region has deteriorated sharply. There were frequent clashes between opposing factions in Kurtun Warrey and Qoryoley area. In addition, there were increasing land mine casualties, which restricted normal movement in the area.


Food Security Highlights

Middle Shabelle Region

March 2000

General Situation

No rainfall was received across the region during the month. The weather remained hot and dry, as is the norm for the dry season. Water availability for humans and livestock is considered normal. However, the dry weather prevails in the area, thus, the price of water is high. Meanwhile, borehole pumps are being used intensively. The river’s level is low.

Pasture and grazing conditions are poor, as a result of the dry weather. The distance between pasture and water has increased. Similarly, livestock condition is below normal. Cattle are the most affected, while camels and goats are in better condition, because of their browsing possibilities from trees and shrubs. Frequent livestock movement within the region, as a result of the dry spell and their search for better grazing areas, is common. Poor grazing has also caused low milk production. No diseases have been reported. However, the lack of animal drugs to treat commonly transmitted diseases was the main problem reported by livestock herders.

Most seasonal crops are not on the ground, with the exception of sesame, which is at the final harvesting stage. Land preparation for the gu season is under way. Major staple foods are available in local markets. The supply of maize, sorghum and cowpea is normal. The retail price of sorghum has decreased by 9%, as compared to last month, and 13%, as compared to the same month last year. The price of maize remains at the same level as last month, but 32% lower than the same month last year. The price of cowpea has increased by 19%, as compared to last month and 17%, as compared to the same month last year.

Rainfall

No rainfall was received throughout the region during the month. The weather remains hot and dry.

Water Availability

Water availability for humans and livestock is normal, although the price of water is above normal. The main sources of water are either wells or the river.

Pasture and Grazing

Pasture and grazing conditions in the pastoral and agro-pastoral areas are normal. The distance between pasture and water has increased to above normal lengths.

Crop Conditions

No crops are on the ground at present, which is normal. Land preparation for the gu season is under way. The river’s level remained low during the month.

Household Cereal Stocks

Household cereal stocks are still normal. Farmers have some stocks from the deyr harvest, which can sustain families from one to two months.

Employment/Coping Mechanisms

Agricultural labor opportunities are at their lowest level during this time of the year, with the exception of banana plantations (Balad). A high number of people are looking for jobs, but they cannot obtain any employment. Other sources of income include the collection of firewood and charcoal burning.

Market Prices

Major staple foods are available in the market. The supply of maize, sorghum and cowpea is normal. Sorghum distributed through Food for Work programs has stabilized the price. In general, the price remained the same as last month.

Health and Nutrition

The health and nutritional status of the area is normal. No outbreak of diseases or severe malnutrition have been observed or reported.

Security Situation

The security situation of the region remained calm. No clashes occurred during the month.


Food Security Highlights

Bakol Region

March 2000

General Situation

There are serious water shortages throughout the region, particularly in El Barde along the border as well as in pastoral zones. Also, where pasture is available, water availability is deteriorating.

Cattle are the most affected livestock, because they are now mainly dependent on hand feeding. The condition of camels and shoats is below normal, as compared to the norm during the jilaal season. However, due to their browsing capacity, they are less vulnerable than cattle, which have already started to die due to fodder shortage.

Serious food shortages, which were reported in January and February in Bakol, still exist, particularly in Hudur and in rural areas. In Rab Dure, Wajid and El Barde, food aid was distributed by WFP during the first dekad of March. These latest food aid interventions have decreased the problem of food shortage and increased the availability and accessibility of food in that area. In addition, food aid has reduced internal non-seasonal population movements.

Weather Condition and Forecast

Temperature and humidity increased in the second dekad of March. Favorable cloud cover has been seen from March 22nd up to now in Bay and Bakol. The cold weather at night and the wind during the day has ceased. Therefore, there is high expectation of early rains (gu and jer) to begin, in accordance with the farmers’ local forecast.

Water Availability

A significant number of people, who were dependent on water catchments, evacuated from their original zones due to the high water shortage. Shallow wells are decreasing to lower than normal jilaal levels. The entire region has only two boreholes, rehabilitated by UNICEF, that are functioning, out of 17 boreholes left by the former Somali government.

Security, clan and district politics are not an issue in access to water. But, the main problem is water availability in terms of quality and quantity. The main affected areas highly depend on water catchments and boreholes, which are used as sources of water during the jilaal period.

Coping Mechanisms and Income Opportunity

The collection of bush products, which was an important coping strategy in February and in the first dekad of March, has decreased because people are busy dry sowing as well as involved in land preparation. The sale of water by women has increased. Milk and ghee production has significantly decreased due to lack of pasture, grazing, and water stress, thus, decreasing income opportunities from the sale of these products.

Internal remittances have increased, but the amount of money to the families has lowered ranging from Ssh50,000 up to Ssh150,000 per month in March. The main sources of remittances are Mogadishu, Puntland, Somaliland, central regions, Bay and parts of the Shabelle valley. People engage in different activities, such as Koran teaching, herding livestock, agriculture labor, portering, digging water berkads, and petty trading of small quantities of honey and wild products, in order to generate some income.

After the deyr harvest, gifts (usually in the form of sorghum) and zakat (charity), given by relatives from the Bay region to families in the most affected areas in Bakol, are reported to have increased. However, income from zakat sent from the Bay region is far below normal, due to the crop failure in many parts of the Bay region. Historically, the Bay region has been an important source of gifts and zakat for some parts of Bakol, such as the Ufurow zone.

The drought in Ethiopia’s zone 5, particularly the Shabelle areas of Kallafe and Mustahil, have also had a negative impact on Bakol coping strategies, because poor households travel there for agricultural labor opportunities, while traders used to import maize from that area (cross-border trade).

Livestock

Overall, livestock is in a critical condition, due to lack of pasture, grazing, and water. Production of milk and ghee is extremely low, resulting in the increase of the price of milk in the markets. In some areas, where the water shortage is severe, there are no livestock products, such as in El Barde. Cattle are the most affected livestock. The better-off and middle pastoral wealth groups have moved long distances to save their livestock, while poor pastoralists are digging the land to excavate buffalo grass roots. This critical situation was reported from the region in 1974 and again in 1986. In those instances, a significant number of cattle died.

Fortunately, there is no outbreak of livestock diseases and deaths. However, cattle have died because of nutrition related diseases. To save the lives of lactating cows, people prefer to slaughter the young calves.

Crops

People have started to sow cowpea and some sorghum during the first dekad in March. However, early dry sowing is common in this region in order to meet early rains. Some of the family members (men), who left from their areas, are now temporarily returning to sow the field.

The main constraint encountered by farmers at this moment are lack of seeds, particularly coupe and local short cycle maize variety known as Fududug. The main reason for the unavailability of seeds is the accumulation of several crop failures since 1997. The price of sorghum seeds is Ssh3,000/0.75kg, as commonly reported from the main markets.

Seed purchasing power is poor in poor households, while IDPs are destitute and begging for small quantities of seeds from the purchasers.

Wild Foods

There is no significant amount of wild food available, except for a few dikdik and wild fruit from Xamur (Zizuphus christ).

Food Security

The food security situation in Wajid, El Barde and Rab Dure districts is better than January, because of WFP food aid distributions in March. In addition, CARE distributed food aid in Tieglo in February. No food was distributed in Hudur since the suspension of WFP food aid in November 1999.

The food security situation in neighboring regions (except for Ethiopia’s zone 5) seems better than Bakol, which gave people the opportunity to move in different directions and integrate easily into those communities. However, it is very difficult to quantify population movements.

Overall, the availability of food and its accessibility is in crisis in Bakol until the arrival of the gu harvest. Some 35,000 to 50,000 agro-pastoralists, which were dependent on rainfed agricultural production, have experienced food insecurity after the deyr crop failure - sorghum production is estimated to be only 113MT for the entire region. There have been no reports or observations of household cereal stocks.

Market Price

  • Livestock trade activities/price:Decreased to below normal levels
  • Livestock production/reproduction:Significantly below normal in quality and quantity
  • Problems about re-routing:Still exist
  • Basic foods:Available in main markets/high price
  • Purchasing power:Very poor

Displacement/Migration

In El Barde district, the number of IDPs has increased to almost double. Prior to this month, the number of IDPs was estimated to be 150 families, while now there are about 250 to 300 families. These people are increasing and arriving from within and outside the districts, especially Hudur area because of food and water insecurity. There are several other possible reasons for the influx of IDPs into El Barde, such as the expectation of food aid, proximity to water points, and the search for employment and self-employment activities. The majority of IDPs are agro-pastoralists, who rely on both crop production and livestock. These IDPs have very low herd sizes, as much of the herd either died from the drought or was sold.

Health and Nutrition

Lack of drugs and health services are a major concern. Currently, IMC operations in El Barde have been scaled down and there are no UNCAS flights to the area. IMC is planning to extend coverage to Hudur and Rab Dure districts. In Tieglo, UNICEF is supporting the MCH, and health workers are volunteering at the moment. Sanitation related diseases, such as diarrhea and scabies, are commonly reported from areas with a water shortage, although these incidents are common during this time of the year.

Malaria (liver-dormant form) and respiratory tract infections, such as pneumonia and TB, are also commonly reported.

UNICEF has undertaken surveys in Wajid and Rab Dure in February 2000 (see FSAU March nutrition update for details).

Security and other issues

The region is relatively calm and stable at the moment. The Somali Red Crescent opened a small office in Hudur for the tracing of displaced people.


Food Security Highlights

Bay Region

March 2000

General Situation

No rainfall in the region, as is the norm for this time of year. Scarcity of water is the major problem this month, because water catchments have dried up. Humans and livestock are concentrated at water points (boreholes and shallow wells), which are sometimes far away from the pasture areas. This has very much affected cattle production in terms of milk, ghee and meat. Camels and shoats are more tolerant to water scarcity.

The availability of food is normal, as a result of food aid distributions from CARE to the districts of Bur Hakaba, Qansah Dere and the eastern part of Baidoa, and the deyr harvest. However, the purchasing power of the population, particularly in Bur Hakaba and Dinsor, is low. Farmers have begun cleaning their fields and preparing the land, although some farmers started to plant sorghum in order to take advantage of the early rains. Market activities are normal, except for the Bur Hakaba district, due to the security situation.

Livestock

Livestock are experiencing water scarcity this month. Livestock are concentrated around boreholes and shallow wells. In addition, pasture and grazing areas are very limited, because it is the end of the dry season. Therefore, cattle body weight has declined, whereas shoats and camel are browsing on various shrubs and acacia plants.

Employment and Self-employment Opportunities

Self-employment activities have increased this month, such as the sale of water, and the collection of bush products (firewood, charcoal, building poles and sticks). Employment is available from activities such as land preparation, planting and construction.

Health and Nutrition

Health and nutrition conditions differ from one district to another. The nutrition status in Baidoa and Qansah Dere is normal, but below normal in Bur Hakaba and Dinsor, because of food insecurity in those districts.

Population Movement

There are no IDPs in the region, but some returnees from neighboring regions are taking part in land preparation and planting sorghum. Therefore, this may increase the land area cultivated for the gu season.

Security

The overall security situation in the region is calm, although there still is tension in Bur Hakaba and Dinsor districts between rival groups.


Food Security Highlights

Cowpea Belt Region

March 2000

 

General Situation

The Cowpea Belt stretches between the northeast part of Middle Shabelle (Adanyabal and Adle), the southeast part of Galgadud (Elbur, Galhareri and Elder), and the southeast part of the Mudug region (Hara Dhere and Hobyo).

The region is predominantly hot and dry in jilaal season with a higher demand of drinking water for human and livestock populations. The accessibility and availability of water for both humans and livestock is in question, as the water table in shallow wells and boreholes has decreased. The availability of food is decreasing in most central regions. Livestock sales are declining, as the peak Haj exporting period has ended. The Haj period increased economic activity in the areas and offered many opportunities to the general population. There are signs of food shortage in certain drought-affected settlements, such as parts of Galgadud and parts of Mudug regions, for example Hara-Dhere and Hobyo.

Food Security

Currently, the food availability is decreasing at most central region markets and, similarly, livestock sales are declining, due to the end of the Haj period. There is an indication of early food shortage in certain drought-affected settlements, such as parts of Galgadud and parts of Mudug regions, for example Hara-Dhere and Hobyo. There is activity at the Hobyo port, which imports food and exports animals.

Rainfall

The weather is hot, dry, and windy during the day, cold at night and the sky is cloudless. In this month, there are no significant rains in the central rangeland regions.

Water Availability

Water accessibility for humans and livestock, which are mainly from shallow wells and a few boreholes, face shortage as the water table has fallen. Currently, people with livestock are concentrated around functioning shallow and rig-dug wells.

Many rig-dug wells broke down, due to lack of maintenance. The people in the central regions are strongly appealing for the alleviation of such problems by stepping up maintenance and repair of existing wells and the establishment of new ones.

Livestock Condition

In most locations, the livestock condition is generally below normal, as they are decreasing in productivity and marketability.

In some locations, there are some diseases like Sandhiig (nose bleeding) for camels and Tu’ for cattle and other tick borne diseases. Veterinary services are limited in the area. However, drugs are available.

Pasture Grazing

The general pasture condition is decreasing in most inland locations and coastal settlements, which is causing a low capacity for animal grazing.

Dry Land Farming Activities

The central rangeland regions depend on seasonal rainfall distribution from both the gu and deyr seasons. The current farming activities are confined to bush clearance and burning for land preparation. In some areas, early sowing is already underway.

Following decreased farming activities in the deyr season, currently, there is a remarkable shortage of seeds in the Cowpea Belt regions.

Market Prices

Generally, there is a slight price increase for local and imported food commodities, animal products, and of live-animals. The supply trend is moderate, and prices are increasing, while the general activity is normal.

Health and Nutrition

The health condition in the central regions is moderate. There are observations of malnutrition in certain drier settlements in both coastal and inland areas. In some locations in the region, there have been cases of malaria and measles.

Security

Generally, the stability in the region is promising. Community elders are responsible for maintaining security and other social decisions. In particular, the security in Hara-Dhere is promising, as verified by a team of FSAU staff who visited the area from March 2 – 13, 2000.

Major Community Needs

Besides the rough and deteriorating roads, the entire population in the central region is in great need of health and educational services, and the maintenance of existing water catchments and boreholes in the area, while at the same time establishing new ones in various locations throughout the central region. Those areas in dire need of water include, Hara-Dhere (Dinco, Warshubo, Ris), Hobyo (Wargalo, Elgula), Elder (Casweyne, Garweyn, Galdhabo) and Adayba (Booscadur).


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